Ischemic heart disease (IHD), also referred as myocardial ischemia, is a disease characterized by ischemia of the heart muscle that usually due to coronary artery disease. Age, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure will attribute the onset of IHD. Men are in higher risks to have IHD, as well as the ones who have close relatives with IHD.
There are stable and unstable IHD. For stable IHD, chest pain on exertion and decreased exercise tolerance are the most common symptoms. For unstable IHD, chest pain can happen at rest, or the patient will experience rapidly progressing chest pain (angina).
Treatment options differ as different patient has different symptoms. Available treatments are medications, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (angioplasty). For acute coronary syndrome, revascularization has showed a significant mortality benefit. For stable ischemic heart disease, revascularization may also confer a mortality benefit over medical therapy alone suggested by recent evidence.